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Lesson 37: Dictionary

This mini dictionary provides definitions in context of provided vocabulary words and their encompassing poems.

Note: Additional definitions for terms other than those provided often exist.

Abash: To make ashamed; to embarrass.

Ablution: The act of washing something.

Abode: A residence, dwelling or habitation.

Abyss: A bottomless depth.

Aches: Suffers pain.

Admires: Looks upon with pleasure or delight.

Admiring: Looking upon with pleasure or delight.

Advertise: To give information about a person or goods and services to gain attention.

Affinity: A natural attraction.

Aghast: Terrified, shocked, or horrified.

Aground: Resting on the bottom.

Alas: Used to express sadness or regret.

Alders: Any of several trees or shrubs belonging to the birch family.

Aloft: At, to, or in the air or sky.

Alter: To become different.

Amethyst: 1. A purple color. 2. A transparent purple variety of gemstone.

Amid: Surrounded by; in the middle of.

Anchor: Hold an object to a fixed point.

Anchored: Held an object to a fixed point.

Arches: Items having an inverted U shape, such as bridges.

Arms: Weapons.

Aspires: Hopes or dreams; longs for; tries to reach.

Aspirations: Passionate wishes or desires.

Astray: In a wrong direction.

Atmosphere: 1. The air in a particular place. 2. The apparent mood felt in an environment.

Averse: Having a dislike of or opposition to something.

Awakenings: Realizations or discoveries.

Baffles: Confuses or puzzles.

Ban: To curse.

Bark: A small sailing vessel, such as a rowing boat.

Barrack: A building for soldiers.

Barrenness: 1. Desolation or emptiness. 2. Lack of vegetation.

Bay: A body of water surrounded on three sides by land.

Bayou: A swamp or stagnant creek or river.

Beguile: To charm or delight.

Belfry: A steeple or tower containing bells.

Believed: Accepted as true.

Bellow: The deep roar of an animal.

Benign: Kind and gentle.

Beside: Next to.

Blush: Turn pink or red.

Bodice: The upper part of a women's dress.

Bog: A marsh or swamp.

Borne: Supported, carried, or survived.

Bosom: The chest of a human.

Bosom-friend: A very close friend.

Botticelli: Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter.

Bough: Firm branch of a tree.

Boughs: Firm branches of a tree.

Bourn: A small stream or brook.

Breadth: The measure of how wide something is.

Breeding: Growing or multiplying.

Bridle: The headgear with which a horse is directed.

Brunt: The full negative effects of.

Buoyant: 1. Able to float. 2. Lighthearted and lively.

Cage: An enclosure made of bars.

Carriage: A wheeled vehicle, generally drawn by horses.

Casket: A coffin.

Ceasing: Stopping.

Ceaselessly: Without stopping.

Cellar: An enclosed underground space used for storage or shelter.

Cells: Sections of a larger structure.

Centuries: Periods of 100 consecutive years.

Charities: Activities that help those in need.

Chillest: The coldest.

Choir: A group of people or animals who sing or make noise together.

Chord: A pleasant-sounding group of three or more notes heard as if sounding simultaneously.

Chuckles: Quiet laughs.

Cider-press: A machine that presses juice from apples to make cider.

Cinctured: Enclosed or encircled.

Civility: Politeness.

Clammy: Cold and damp.

Clasps: Holds or grasps.

Clew (clue): Information that leads to understanding.

Clings: Holds tightly.

Cobbles: Short for cobblestones.

Cobblestones: Rounded stones from a river bed, used for paving roads.

Comfort: Something relieving suffering or worry.

Companions: Friends with whom one spends time.

Conscience: The sense of right or wrong that affects one's own behavior.

Conspiring: Secretly making plans to bring bad or illegal results.

Continental : Of or relating to a continent.

Copse: A thicket of small trees or shrubs.

Core: The heart or inner part of a thing.

Cornice: A part projecting from walls of a building, used to direct rainwater away from the walls.

Countenance: Appearance or facial expression.

Crescent: The view of the moon in its first or last quarter, with ends terminating in points.

Crinkled: Bent or crumpled.

Crocus: A flowering plant with blooms that are often purple.

Croft: A fenced piece of land.

Cruel: Mean or heartless.

Curlew: Any of several wading birds with long, slender, downcurved bills.

Cut: To divide a deck of playing cards.

Dais: A raised platform or table in a room.

Darksome: Characterized by darkness and gloom.

Dart: A sudden or fast movement.

Dazzle: To confuse the sight with bright light.

Debouch: To emerge from a narrow place into open country or a wider space.

Defiance: A challenging attitude or behavior.

Deftly: Skillfully, quickly, and neatly in action.

Dense: 1. Compact or crowded together. 2. Thick or allowing little light to pass through.

Depth: The deepest part.

Descended: Moved downward.

Descends: Moves downward.

Detached: Moved apart from.

Detachments: Smaller groups split off from the main group.

Dew: Moisture in the air that settles on plants or other objects as drops of water.

Dint: A mark or indentation.

Disused: Not used or neglected.

Divine: Beautiful, holy, or heavenly.

Dodge: To avoid by moving quickly out of the way.

Dome: Anything shaped like an upside-down bowl.

Doth: An archaic term for "do" or "does."

Doubtless: Free from doubt. Certain.

Down: Soft, fluffy immature feathers which grow on young birds.

Dream: A hope or wish.

Dreary: Drab, colorless, or cheerless.

Drifting: Moving slowly, especially pushed by currents of water or air.

Drone: A monotone or unchanging sound.

Drowsed: Slept.

Drowsing: Sleeping.

Ductile: Capable of being stretched into thin wire without breaking.

Dusty: Covered with dust.

Dwell: To reside or live.

Ease: Comfortable or relaxed.

Edged: Bordered by a certain material, color, and so on.

Efface: To erase.

Elder: Older.

Embalmer: One who prepares a corpse for burial.

Embowered: Enclosed or protected something.

Embrown: To make brown.

Emerald: Of a rich green color.

Emigrants: People who leave a country to settle in a new country.

Encampment: A campsite.

Enchant: 1. To attract and delight, to charm. 2. To cast a spell upon.

Enshaded: Kept in shade or darkness.

Equipoise: A state of balance.

Ere: Before.

Eremite: A hermit; a religious recluse, someone who lives alone.

Errands: Journeys undertaken to accomplish tasks.

Essence: Fragrance, a perfume.

Estates: Land and often houses owned by particular individuals.

Eternal: Lasting forever.

Eternity: A period of time which lasts forever.

Ethereal: 1. Delicate, light and airy. 2. Spirit-like or otherworldly.

Eve (eave): The underside of a roof that extends beyond the external walls of a building.

Examine: To inspect carefully.

Exhibited: Displayed or showed.

Extended: Straightened or held out.

Extremity: The most extreme or furthest point of something.

Exult: To rejoice.

Faint: Lacking strength.

Fairer: More beautiful.

Fancies: 1. Imagination. 2. Images that form in the mind.

Fathom: Understand.

Fatigue: Tiredness.

Felling: Chopping down.

Festive: In the mood to celebrate.

Filament: A fine thread.

Fleet: Swift or quick.

Fleurs-de-lys: Designs representing a flower whose three petals are joined together at the bottom.

Fling: To throw.

Forethought: Think about or plan ahead of time.

Forevermore: Forever.

Forsaken: Deserted, abandoned.

Frigates: 19th-century warships.

Fruitfulness: The state of being favorable to the growth of fruit or vegetation.

Furrow: A trench cut in the soil.

Gale: To sing or call.

Gapes: 1. Opens the mouth wide. 2. Stares in wonder.

Garments: Clothing.

Gauze: Mist or haze.

Gilded: Golden or covered with gold.

Girth: A band passed under the belly of an animal, which holds a saddle in place.

Gleam: A shaft, beam, or ray of light.

Gleaner: One who gathers what is left in a field after a harvest.

Glide: To move smoothly or effortlessly.

Glistening: Sparkling, glinting, or flashing.

Globes: Planets such as the earth.

Gnats: Tiny insects that often gather in swarms.

Gossamer: A delicate film as of cobwebs.

Gourd: A hard-shelled fruit.

Grace: 1. Elegant movement or poise. 2. Charming, pleasing qualities.

Granary: A storage facility for grain or animal feed.

Grenadiers: Soldiers who throw grenades.

Grief: Sadness or sorrow.

Grins: Smiles in which the lips are parted to reveal the teeth.

Guile: Deceit or dishonesty.

Gully: A small valley.

Halcyon: Peaceful, calm, blissful, or serene.

Half-impassable: Incapable of being crossed at many places.

Haste: Speed or swiftness.

Hasten: Speed up or move quickly.

Hastens: Speeds up or moves quickly.

Haunted: Of a location haunted by ghosts or spirits.

Hedge: A thicket of bushes.

Height: The highest point or maximum degree.

Hempen: Related to ropes made of the hemp plant.

Henceforth: From now on.

Hewed: Chopped away at or whittled.

Hoarded: Gathered a cache of valued objects.

Hoary: Frosty.

Hope: The belief or expectation that something wished for can or will happen.

Host: A large number of items.

Hostler: A person employed at an inn or stable to look after horses. A groom.

Hue: 1. Form or appearance. 2. A shade of color.

Hummock: A small hill.

Hushed: Quiet.

Illuminated: Lit up.

Imitative: Copying another thing.

Immortality: The condition of living forever and never dying.

Impalpable: Not able to be sensed.

Impassive: 1. Having or revealing no emotion. 2. Still or motionless.

Impatient: Anxious or eager to begin something.

Impearled: To decorate as if with pearls.

Impetuous: Acting impulsively without care.

Impressions: Effects or marks changing something.

Impulse: A wish or urge.

Infested: Plagued by large numbers of an invading force.

Inlet: A body of water let into a coast, such as a bay or a cove.

Inn: Any establishment where travelers can procure lodging, food, and drink.

Inoffensive: Not causing anger, disgust, or hatred.

Instep: The arched part of the top of the foot between the toes and the ankle.

Invariably: Always; every time.

Irrepressible: Uncontrollable.

Isolated: Placed or standing apart or alone.

Jar: A sense of alarm or dismay.

Jocund: Merry and in high spirits. Happy.

Kernel: A single seed or grain, especially of corn or wheat.

Kindled: Started a fire.

Labor (labour): Toil, work.

Labored: Toiled, worked.

Lad: A boy or young man.

Laden: Weighted down with a load.

Lag-last: One who comes in last.

Lark: Any of a small, singing variety of birds.

Larks: A small, singing variety of birds.

Lass: A girl or young lady.

Launched: Thrown or hurled.

Lay: A ballad or sung poem.

Leaflet: 1. One part of a compound leaf. 2. A small plant leaf.

Leisure: Time free from work or duties.

Lies: To give false information with an intent to deceive.

Lilies: Large, fragrant flowers that sprout from a tall stem.

Limpid: Clear, transparent, or bright.

Lingering: Waiting or remaining.

Listless: Lacking energy, enthusiasm, or liveliness.

Livelong: Total, complete, whole.

Lone: Unfrequented by human beings; solitary.

Longing: An earnest and deep desire.

Lords: Possessing mastery or ownership.

Lulling: Soothing or calming.

Luxury: 1. Very wealthy and comfortable surroundings. 2. Something very pleasant but not really needed in life.

Lynx: Any of several medium-sized wild cats.

Magnet: Something or someone that attracts other people or things.

Magnified: Made to appear larger.

Mantle: A cloak or open robe.

Mar: To damage or spoil.

Maturing: Aging, ripening, or growing.

Mead: A meadow.

Measureless: Unable to be measured.

Mellow: 1. Soft or tender by reason of ripeness. 2. Relaxed or calm.

Mercury: A silvery-colored, toxic metal.

Metaphor: The use of a word or phrase to refer to something that it is not to make an implied comparison.

Mettle: A quality of endurance and courage.

Misled: Led astray, tricked, or deceived.

Moorings: Places to secure vessels with a cables or anchors.

Moors: An extensive wasteland covered with patches of heath, and having a poor, light soil, but sometimes marshy, and abounding in peat.

Morn: Morning.

Mortmain: The perpetual, inalienable possession of lands by a non-personal entity.

Mourn: Express sadness or sorrow.

Mourns: Expresses sadness or sorrow.

Muffled: Stifled or covered up.

Murmurs: Low or quiet sounds or speech.

Musing: Thinking or contemplating.

Muster: A collection of people or things.

Musty: Having a stale odor.

Mute: 1. Not able to speak. 2. Silent.

Myriad: Countless number.

Myriads: Countless numbers.

Mystic: 1. Mysterious, strange, or enigmatic. 2. One who believes they can know the divine through contemplation.

Nay: No.

Nevermore: Never again.

Nobody: 1. No person; no one. 2. A person of no importance or authority.

Noiseless: Creating no noise.

Notch: Mark with a V-shaped cut or indent.

Notched: Marked with a V-shaped cut or indent.

Ode: A short poem, often written to honor someone or something.

O'er: Over.

Over-brimmed: Overflowed or spilled over.

Over-wise (overwise): Too clever for one's own good.

Overflow: To flow over the brim of a container.

Pair: Two of something.

Pan: Greek god of nature, often visualized as half goat and half man playing pipes.

Pangs: Sharp, sudden feelings, as of joy or sorrow.

Parterre: A garden with paths between flowerbeds.

Patient: Willing to wait without losing one's temper.

Patterned: Having a repeating arrangement of something such as shapes and/or colors.

Peace: A state of tranquility, quiet, and harmony.

Pendulum: A body suspended from a fixed support so that it swings freely back and forth under the influence of gravity.

Pensive: Looking thoughtful or sad.

Perceives: Sees, aware of, understands.

Perches: Rests or roosts, in some cases in an elevated position.

Perfumed: Scented.

Peril: Danger.

Perpetual: Lasting forever.

Perturbations: Disturbances.

Phantoms: Spirits, ghosts, or apparitions.

Pioneers: People who go before, as into the wilderness, preparing the way for others to follow.

Pith: The soft, spongy substance in the center of the stems of many plants and trees.

Plains: Relatively flat and empty expanses of land.

Plaited: Folded.

Planks: Long and broad pieces of wood.

Plateaus: Largely level expanses of land at a high elevation.

Plenteous: In great quantity; abundant.

Poised: Suspended.

Pomegranates: Fruit with red, seedy pulp and thick, hard, reddish skins.

Poppy: A plant with red flowers containing sleep-inducing but addictive medicinal substances.

Poppies: Plants with red flowers containing sleep-inducing but addictive medicinal substances.

Port: A place on the coast at which ships can shelter or dock.

Prairies: Extensive areas of relatively flat grassland with few, if any, trees.

Praise: To speak highly of, to celebrate, or to glorify.

Prayer: A practice of communicating with one's God or higher power.

Precede: Go in front of.

Prepense: Planned beforehand.

Presuming: Taking for granted, sometimes mistakenly.

Pricks: Pierces, punctures, or pokes a hole in something.

Pride: An unreasonable feeling of superiority.

Primeval: Ancient or prehistoric.

Promontory: A cliff extending into a body of water.

Propositions: Statements assumed to be true or false.

Prospect: The potential things that may come to pass, often favorable.

Public: Able to be seen or known by everyone; open to general view.

Purely: 1. Completely, wholly. 2. Innocently, chastely.

Radiant: Radiating light and/or heat.

Rapt: Enthusiastic or absorbed.

Realm: An otherworldly, magical, or ethereal dimension or domain.

Reaped: Cut or harvested.

Reeds: Tall stiff perennial grass-like plants growing in groups near water.

Resolved: Determined.

Resumé: Abstract or intangible.

Ringed: Marked or surrounded by one or more rings, loops, or circles.

Ripening: The process of maturing, sweetening, or becoming ready for harvest.

Ripple: A moving disturbance, or undulation, in the surface of a fluid.

Rises: Moves upwards.

Robust: Strong, vigorous, or healthy.

Root: The part of a plant, generally underground, that anchors the plant body and absorbs water and nutrients.

Rude: Rough, harsh, or severe.

Ruin: The state of being a ruin, destroyed or decayed.

Russet: A reddish-brown color.

Saints: 1. People to whom a religious group has attributed the title of "saint"; holy or godly people. 2. People with positive qualities; one who does good.

Sallows: A willow with broad leaves, large catkins, and tough wood.

Sate: Archaic form of "sat."

Scanned: Examined sequentially, part by part.

Scarcely: Almost not at all; hardly.

Scrutinizing: Examining something with great care.

Seal: A tight closure, secure against leakage.

Sedge: A plant with long grasslike leaves that often grows in dense tufts in marshy places.

Seedling: A young plant.

Seek: To search for.

Seldom: Almost never, rarely.

Self-decked: Dressed up or decorated by oneself.

Sentinel: A guard or watchman.

Settles: Sinks down or deposits.

Shades: Shields from light.

Shattered: Broke violently into small pieces.

Sheath'd (sheathed): Encased or covered.

Shoot: The emerging stem and leaves of a new plant.

Shoreward : In the direction of the shoreline.

Shrills: To make a high-pitched and piercing noise.

Shuffle: The act of rearranging the order of something.

Sift: To examine carefully.

Signal: A sign made to give notice of some occurrence, command, or danger.

Silk: A fine, soft cloth woven from silk fibers.

Sill: A horizontal slat which forms the base of a window.

Sinewy: Strong, muscular, and powerful.

Sluggish: Slow, idle, or lazy.

Sombre (somber): Dark or dreary in character; joyless, and grim.

Somebody: A recognized person, a celebrity.

Soothest: To calm, ease pain, or relieve suffering.

Soul: The spirit or essence of a person usually thought to consist of one's thoughts and personality.

South: One of the four major compass points, typically downwards on a map.

Spar: Any beam-like structure on a ship.

Spectral: Of, or pertaining to ghosts or specters.

Spheres: Three-dimensional objects in which every cross-section is a circle.

Spire: A tapering structure built on a roof or tower.

Spiritual: Of or pertaining to the spirit or the soul.

Splendid: Showy; magnificent; brilliant.

Splendor: 1. Great light, luster or brilliance. 2. Magnificent appearance, display or grandeur.

Spoke: A support structure that connects the hub of a wheel to the rim.

Sprang/sprung: Jumped or leaped.

Stay: Stop or detain.

Steadfast: Fixed or unchanging; steady.

Stealthy: Acting secretly such that the actions are unnoticed by others.

Steed: A male adult horse.

Steeds: Male adult horses.

Steeple: A tall tower.

Stir: To move or disturb.

Strangest: Oddest or least normal.

Strife: Conflict or trouble.

Strike: 1. To hit. 2. To cause to sound by one or more beats.

Strive: Try earnestly and persistently in the face of opposition.

Strove: Tried earnestly and persistently in the face of opposition.

Stubble: 1. Short, coarse protrusions. 2. The short stalks left in a field after crops have been harvested.

Subtleties: Instances of being not obvious or easily understood.

Sum: A total quantity obtained by addition or collection.

Surmised: Guessed.

Surroundings: The environment or areas around something.

Swath: 1. The track cut out by a scythe in mowing. 2. A broad sweep or expanse.

Sweeping: To travel quickly.

Swoon: To faint or lose consciousness.

Tarry: To delay or linger.

Tempests: Storms.

Tender: Gentle or sweet.

Thatch: A roof or covering made of interwoven straw, rushes, reeds, or leaves.

Thee: Archaic version of "you."

Thickset: Stout or plump.

Thou: Archaic version of "you."

Thrive: To grow vigorously.

Thronged: Full of things crowded together; swarming.

Thrusts: Juts or pushes up.

Thy: Archaic version of "your."

Tide: The periodic change of the sea level, caused by the gravitational influence of the sun and the moon.

Tinctured: Colored.

Tireless: Never tiring or fatigued.

Title-deeds: Documents by which the titles to property are transferred between parties.

To and fro: Back and forth; with an alternating motion.

Toil: Hard work, especially of a grueling nature.

Tone: A specific pitch of a musical sound.

Tortured: Tormented or in agony.

Tower: Any very tall building or structure.

Trace: Evidence of a prior existence.

Tramping: Walking a long time over difficult terrain.

Tranquil: Calm or peaceful.

Transact: To exchange or trade, as of ideas, money, goods, etc.

Transparent: See-through; clear; allowing light to pass through almost undisturbed.

Treading: Stepping, walking, or trampling.

Treble: Any high-pitched or shrill voice or sound.

Tremble: To shake, quiver, or vibrate.

Trough: A long, narrow container, open on top, for feeding or watering animals.

Tune: A song.

Turbidly: With muddiness.

Twilight: The period between daylight and darkness.

Twined: Twisted or wound around.

Unchangeable: Not able to be changed.

Unto: Up to the time or degree that; until; till.

Untrue: Not true; False.

Uphill: Up a slope, toward higher ground.

Vacant: Empty; unoccupied.

Vain: Pointless, hopeless, or futile.

Vainly: Conceitedly or overly proud of oneself.

Vair: Fur from a squirrel with a black back and white belly.

Vanished : Disappeared or became invisible.

Vapours (vapors): Mists, steam or fumes suspended in the air.

Vast: Very large or wide.

Vault: Any arched ceiling or roof.

Venturing: The act of one who takes a risky or daring journey.

Venus: The Roman goddess of love, beauty, and natural productivity.

Vexing: Tossing back and forth; agitating; disquieting.

Vile: Morally low; base; despicable.

Virtue: 1. Good moral conduct. 2. A creature embodying divine power, specifically one of the orders of heavenly beings.

Visible: Able to be seen.

Vision: Something imaginary one thinks one sees.

Vital: Life-giving.

Wafts: Floats gently through the air.

Wailful: Sorrowful; mournful.

Wards: The ridges on the inside of a lock.

Waste: Gradual loss.

Wastebasket: A small, indoor container for trash.

Wayfarers: Travelers, especially on foot.

Wearied: Tired; fatigued.

Weathercock (weather-cock): A weather vane, often in the form of a young male chicken.

Wherein: Where, or in which location.

Whippoorwill: A nocturnal insectivorous bird named for its call (whip-poor-will).

Whir: To move or vibrate with a buzzing sound.

Wide: Having a large physical extent from side to side.

Wind: The act of winding or turning; a turn; a bend; a twist.

Winnowing: Tossing about by blowing.

Withdrew: Pulled back or away.

Wobbling: Teetering back and forth.

Woes: Great sadness or distress.

Worth: Having value of; deserving of.

Wrought: Having been worked or prepared somehow.

Yea: Yes.