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The North American Country of Canada


  1. Canada comprises ten provinces plus three territories to the north. The provinces are, in alphabetical order: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. The three territories are Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon.
  2. Canada's central part is in the same latitude as the northern boundaries of Maine and Michigan.
  3. The winters in the Province of Quebec are very severe, and last more than six months of the year.
  4. The temperature of the atmosphere is the same as that of Norway, Sweden, and Iceland.
  5. The climate of Canada is hotter in summer and colder in winter than on the western coasts of the United States and Europe, in corresponding latitudes.
  6. Nearly all its rivers flow into the St. Lawrence, and its northern boundary is the watershed which separates the Basin of Hudson Bay from that of the St Lawrence River.
  7. The immense forests of Canada furnish valuable timber, which, along with oil, gems, precious metals, and wheat, are important exports.
  8. The people of the eastern provinces were historically engaged in lumber trade, ship-building, and the fisheries (cod, salmon, herrings, and mackerel).
  9. By means of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, commerce is extensively earned on between the interior of the continent and the Atlantic coasts of America and Europe. Navigation around Niagara Falls and the rapids in the St. Lawrence is conducted by means of canals.
  10. Quebec, situated on the top and at the foot of a promontory, was once the most strongly fortified city in America, and the outlet for the products of Canada.
  11. Toronto is the largest city in Canada, and Ottawa is its capital.
  12. Canadian Provinces, Territories, and Major Cities


  1. Canada was colonized by the French, under Cartier in 1541.
  2. The native people were friendly until the French carried off one of their kings.
  3. Upper and Lower Canada, now the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, remained in possession of the French for more than 200 years, or until the capture of Quebec by English troops under General Wolfe in 1759.
  4. Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were ceded to England in 1713. Nova Scotia means New Scotland.
  5. The People of the province of Quebec are chiefly of French descent; of the other provinces, British.
  6. Canada is a Federal Parliamentary Democracy and Constitutional Monarchy, sharing power between the provinces and the federal government. It has a King or Queen as its head of state and a Prime Minister as its head of government.
  7. Canada adopted its own constitution and became independent of England in 1982. However, as of 2020, it is still part of the British Commonwealth and its queen is the Queen of England.
  8. The Canadian people elect local representatives to act as members of parliament (MPs). The leader of the party with the most MPs becomes Canada's prime minister.