Comprehensive Geography by James Monteith Comprehensive Geography by James Monteith    

Lesson 27: Scandinavia: Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Denmark


  1. The characteristics of Norway and Sweden are their indented coast lines with numerous islands, their forests of pines and firs, and their long winters; besides these, Norway noted for mountains, glaciers, fjords, and snowy peaks, and Sweden for numerous rivers and lakes.
  2. A Fjord in Norway
  3. Lumber, fish, and ice have been historically exported.
  4. Denmark comprises the peninsula of Jutland and the islands east of it. Greenland belongs to the Kingdom of Denmark. The capital of Denmark is Copenhagen. Copenhagen, spread across the islands of Zealand, Amager, and others, is the largest city in Denmark.
  5. Copenhagen, Denmark
  6. Sweden is known for its tidy streets, the musical ground ABBA, Swedish Meatballs, and the home furnishing company IKEA. The capital city of Sweden is Stockholm.
  7. Stockholm, Sweden
  8. Finland is known for its high incomes, universal health care, and excellent education. The capital city of Finland is Helsinki.
  9. Helsinki, Finland
  10. Norway is known for its natural beauty, gorgeous fjords, and as the location where the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded. The capital city of Norway is Oslo. At Hammerfest, Norway, the most northern town in Europe, the sun in summer is seen until midnight.
  11. Oslo, Norway
  12. A common religion in these three countries is Lutheran. Their languages are different, although derived from the same language, which is still spoken in Iceland.
  13. The indigenous Sámi people live in the northern parts of Europe including Norway, Sweden, and Finland. They traditionally engage in occupations of fishing, trapping, and reindeer and sheep herding.
  14. As of 2020, the current population of Sweden is over 10 million, of Norway is over 5.3 million, of Finland is over 5.5 million, and of Denmark is over 5.7 million.


  1. The early history of these countries is obscure.
  2. The people converted from paganism to Christianity about the 10th century, and were sometimes allied and sometimes at war with each other.
  3. The most celebrated sovereign of Sweden was Gustavus Adolphus, who reigned in the early part of the 17th century. There is a college in St. Peter, Minnesota named for this King.
  4. Norway was joined to Sweden in 1814, but split apart in 1905.
  5. Denmark extended south to the Elbe until 1864, when three of the duchies were taken by Prussia.
  6. The Danes of Denmark were long noted for their daring, especially on the sea. In the 11th century, they held England and a part of Scotland in subjection.


  1. Find Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark on the map.
  2. What are the capital cities of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark? Find them.
  3. What is the name of the body of water between Norway and Denmark?
  4. What is the name of the body of water between Sweden and Denmark?
  5. What is the name of the gulf between Sweden and Finland?
  6. Where is Norwegian Sea?
  7. Where is the North Sea?
  8. Where is the Baltic Sea?