• Spain and Portugal form the Iberian Peninsula.
    • The Iberian Peninsula
    • The surface is a plateau, on which are five chains of mountains, extending from east to west; between these chains run the principal rivers.
    • Pyrenees Mountains in Spain
    • The interior is high, dry, and treeless; its summers are hot and its winters cold, and along the coast of the Mediterranean perpetual spring prevails.
    • The inhabitants are descended from the Iberians and Celts, also with Carthaginian, Roman, Gothic, and North African ancestry.

  2. SPAIN
    • As of 2020, the population of Spain is over 46 million.
    • Chief exports of Spain include machinery, vehicles, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs.
    • Castilian Spanish is the predominant language spoken in Spain.
    • Madrid, the capital and metropolis of Spain, is in the same latitude as New York, Naples, and Salt Lake City.

    Madrid, Spain
    • In Portugal rain is abundant, and along the coast of the Mediterranean, perpetual spring prevails.
    • Major exports of Portugal include olive oil, petroleum, tobacco, and copper ore.
    • As of 2020, the population of Portugal is over 10 million.
    • Portuguese is the primary language spoken in Portugal. The Spanish and Portuguese languages, although different from each other, are both derived from Latin.
    • Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, is in the same latitude as Washington D.C.
    • Beach Near Lisbon, Portugal


  1. The peninsula was originally peopled by the Iberians. On its coasts, colonies were established by the Phoenicians about 1000 B.C. It was subdued by the Carthaginians. and afterwards by the Romans, who held it at the beginning of the Christian era.
  2. At the fall of the Roman Empire, tribes from Germany and France took possession; but these were succeeded by people from Northern Africa (in the 8th century). Those from Northern Africa were driven out by the Spaniards, under Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain (1492), the same year in which Spain came into possession of large portions of North and South America, by right of discovery. Spain became a republic in 1873.
  3. The Portuguese, in the 15th and 10th centuries, were among the most enterprising people of Europe. Their colonies along the coasts of South America, Africa, and Asia were very important.


  1. By what bodies of water is the Iberian Peninsula surrounded?
  2. What country joins Spain on the northeast?
  3. Name three rivers that flow through Spain?
  4. What is the largest river which flows into the Mediterranean Sea?
  5. What is the capital city of Spain? Find it on the map.
  6. What is the capital city of Portugal? Find it on the map.
  7. What islands are east of Spain? What are they called collectively?
  8. What is the name of the strait separating Spain from Morocco?
  9. Which African countries are shown on the map?