Comprehensive Geography by James Monteith Comprehensive Geography by James Monteith    

Lesson 18: The United Kingdom - England and Wales


  1. England is diversified by hills and plains, on which are fine pastures and some of the best cultivated farms in Europe.
  2. The mountains and lakes are chiefly in the northwest.
  3. England's highest peaks are Sea-Fell, Helvellyn, and Skiddaw, each about 3,000 feet in elevation, or one-half the height of Mt. Washington.
  4. England's largest lake is Windermere, which is only ten miles long and one wide.
  5. The climate of England is mild, moist, and healthful. Rain is abundant, and large crops of wheat, barley, oats, and hay are produced.
  6. England is farther north than Canada. What and why is the difference between their climates?
  7. England possesses coal and iron in abundance, excellent harbors, and an industrious population. It has large cities with extensive manufacturers and commerce.
  8. England's principal manufactures are cotton and woolen goods, hardware, and cutlery.
  9. Celebrated for the manufacture of cotton goods is Manchester, woolen goods and cloths is Leeds, iron and steelware is Birmingham, cutlery in Sheffield, silks in Norwich, ribbons in Coventry, carpets in Kidderminster, hosiery in Nottingham.
  10. As of 2020, the current population of England is around 56 million and Wales is over 3 million.
  11. Liverpool is noted for its extensive commerce.
  12. Historically, coal was obtained chiefly from the north (in Durham and Northumberland counties, especially near Newcastle). Iron from Wales, Stafford, and Yorkshire. Lead from the northwest. Tin and Copper from the southwest.
  13. England and Wales together have the same area as the state of Georgia. London alone has a population of over 9 million (2020).
  14. England and Florida are the same in length.


  1. England was first called Albion, or white island, which referred to the chalk cliffs along the southern shore.
  2. England was invaded by the Romans, under Julius Caesar, about 50 years B.C. He gave it the name of Britannia (meaning painted), because the inhabitants, who were Celts, stained their bodies.
  3. The Celts were an ancient people who formerly inhabited Central and Western Europe. By the 1900s, their descendants inhabited Ireland, Wales, the Highlands of Scotland, and the northern shore of France.
  4. England was held by the Romans 400 years, when it was abandoned by them. It was afterward conquered by German tribes called Angles and Saxons: hence the names Angle-land (England) and Anglo-Saxon.
  5. In the ninth century, Egbert and Alfred-the-Great distinguished themselves as rulers of England.
  6. The country was frequently invaded by Danes and Norwegians. The Danish king Canute gained possession in the 11th century, but all were soon conquered by the Normans from France.
  7. In the Norman line of succession were the sovereigns William I, William II, Henry I, and Henry II. The latter became king in the 12th century.
  8. England was long disturbed by fights with France and Scotland, and between rivals for the throne.
  9. England once had vast possessions in America, Asia, Africa, and Oceanica, forming the British Empire.
  10. The American Revolution occurred during the reign of George III, grandfather of Queen Victoria.
  11. The Government is a limited monarchy, and the crown in hereditary (descending from an ancestor).
  12. Parliament, composed of the House of Lords and House of Commons, corresponds to the Congress in the United States.
  13. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland comprise the British Isles.


  1. Which bodies of water and countries border England?
  2. Which bodies of water and countries border Wales?
  3. Which is the capital city of the United Kingdom?
  4. In which part of the United Kingdom is the city of Cardiff?
  5. In which part of the United Kingdom is the city of Liverpool?
  6. Does the Isle of Man belong to England or Wales?
  7. Which body of water would you cross to travel from England to France?
  8. Which body of water would you cross to travel from Wales to Ireland?