Historical Map of South America

  1. South America lies chiefly in the Torrid Zone. Its southern part is in the South Temperate.
  2. In the Torrid Zone is all that part of South America which lies north of Argentina, or about three-fourths of the whole division.
  3. South America's area is equal to three-fourths that of North America.
  4. South America's eastern point is due south of Cape Farewell, Greenland.
  5. South America's western point is directly south of Cape Sable (Florida), and its northern cape is west of the central point of Africa.
  6. South America's shape is triangular; its widest part being from Cape St. Roque to the northwestern part of Peru.
  7. Brazil is nearly as large as the United States; and Uruguay, the smallest country in South America, is larger than the six New England States combined.
  8. In the tropical countries of South America, the winds blow from the Atlantic Ocean, and supply the vast plains with abundant rain. The moisture carried by these winds is condensed before passing the snow-covered peaks of the Andes; hence the rainless districts between the Andes and the Pacific.


  1. South America is celebrated tor its great mountain chain, immense plains and rivers, tropical climate, and the abundance of its vegetable and animal life.
  2. The Andes are from 8,000 to more than 20,000 feet in elevation. The highest peak is Aconcagua, nearly 24,000 feet. In comparison, the highest mountain in North America is around 18,000 feet and in Asia 29,000 feet.
  3. The highest peaks of the Andes are continually covered with snow.
  4. The base of the Andes is about 400 miles wide.
  5. In the center and north, the Andes comprise two or more ranges, between which are plateaus containing lakes and cities. The plateau of Bolivia is more than two miles above the level of the ocean.
  6. The other mountains and plateaus are in Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela; but they are not so high as those of the Andes.


  1. Nearly all else of South America is a vast plain, drained by the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the La Plata rivers.
  2. The plain of the Amazon is noted for its dense forests, called silvas, which are the abode of monkeys, alligators, serpents, and insects, besides birds of wonderful beauty and variety.
  3. In the forests are trees from which cocoa, India-rubber, Peruvian or quinine bark, cabinet and dyewoods are obtained.
  4. The lowlands of the Orinoco, called llanos, and those of the La Plata, called pampas, are covered with grass in the wet season, from November to May; but in the dry season, from May to November, they resemble a desert.
  5. The llanos and pampas afford pasture to vast numbers of cattle, horses, and sheep. The wild cattle are caught by means of the lasso, a long leathern rope.
  6. Modern Map of South America


  1. The chief exports from Uruguay and the Argentine Republic are tallow, hides, horns, hair, wool, and dried beef; from Bolivia and Peru, silver, guano, and nitre.
  2. The precious and useful metals are found in the Andes; diamonds and other precious stones, in Brazil.
  3. Brazil produces more than half the coffee used in the world.
  4. The principal productions of nearly all the countries are coffee, sugar, cotton, tobacco, cocoa, and tropical fruits.
  5. Among the animals are the jaguar or American tiger, tapir, puma, anteater, sloth, alpaca, and armadillo. Mules and llamas are used as beasts of burden. The condor, the largest bird of flight, has its home in the Andes.


  1. What South American countries are crossed by the Equator?
  2. What South American countries are crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn?
  3. What South American countries are wholly within the Torrid Zone?
  4. What South American countries are wholly within the South Temperate Zone?
  5. Which oceans and sea surround South America?
  6. Which South American countries border on the Atlantic?
  7. Which South American countries border on the Pacific?
  8. Which South American countries border on the the Caribbean Sea?
  9. Which South American country has no seacoast?
  10. Say which South American country has each listed city as its capital:
    • Quito - Ans. Ecuador
    • Bogotá
    • Caracas
    • Georgetown
    • Brasilia
    • Asunción
    • Montevideo
    • Buenos Aires
    • Santiago
    • La Paz
    • Lima
    • Cayenne
    • Paramaribo