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  1. The characteristics of Mexico are its great mountain chain, high plateaus, volcanoes, short rivers, silver mines, and tropical products.
  2. Its climate and productions vary with the elevation.
  3. Along the coasts, the climate is hot and pestilential; and on the high grounds, temperate and cold.
  4. The products of the tropical regions are indigo, sugar, cotton, tobacco, orange, etc. and of the temperate regions, corn and wheat. The dye derived from the insect cochineal is an important article of export.
  5. The seasons in the southern half of Mexico are two—the rainy (in summer), and the dry (in winter).
  6. The government was historically very unsettled, owing to revolutions.
  7. The wild animals of the hot region are the jaguar and puma; and on the northern plains, roam bison, cattle, and horses.
  8. Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, is situated on a plateau more than 7,000 feet above the level of the sea. It is the largest city in North America.
  9. Central America resembles Mexico in its characteristics and inhabitants.
  10. Central America comprises seven countries: El Salvador, Costa Rica, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama.


  1. From a European perspective, Mexico was discovered by Cordova in 1517. Two years afterward, it was conquered by Cortez and remained in possession of the Spaniards about 300 years, or until it became a republic in 1821.
  2. Many other Spaniards afterward entered Mexico, and acquired great wealth from the gold and silver mines.
  3. The natives were well advanced in the arts of civilization.
  4. Mexico formerly extended north to Oregon, and east to Louisiana.
  5. Texas declared itself free from Mexico, and was afterward admitted into the Union. War between the United States and Mexico soon followed. The Americans were commanded by General Scott, and the Mexicans by General Santa Anna; the former were victorious, and Mexico ceded to the United States, parts of California, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico for $15,000,000.
  6. Mexico was invaded by the French army in 1863, and Maximilian, of Austria, became emperor. He was soon taken and shot, and the republic was re-established.


  1. Find the following countries on the map of Central America:
    • Mexico
    • Belize
    • Costa Rica
    • El Salvador
    • Guatemala
    • Honduras
    • Nicaragua
    • Panama

  2. Name the country associated with each capital city listed below:
    • San Salvador
    • Panama City
    • Managua
    • San José
    • Tegucigalpa
    • Belmopan
    • Guatemala City
    • Mexico City